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|Title:||Subsurface fracture analysis and determination of in-situ stress direction using FMI logs: An example from the Santonian carbonates (Ilam Formation) in the Abadan Plain, Iran|
|Citation:||Tectonophysics, 2010; 492(1-4):192-200|
|Publisher:||Elsevier Science BV|
|Mojtaba Rajabi, Shahram Sherkati, Bahman Bohloli and Mark Tingay|
|Abstract:||The relationship between the present-day stress field and natural fractures can have significant implications for subsurface fluid flow. In particular, fractures that are aligned in orientations favourable for reactivation by either shear or tensile failure in the in-situ stress field often exhibit higher hydraulic conductivities. The Ilam Formation of southwestern Iran is an important hydrocarbon reservoir containing numerous natural fractures. However, little is known about the state of stress in this region, or any of Iran's petroleum provinces. We conducted analysis of the present-day maximum horizontal stress orientation and the density, orientation and hydraulic conductivity of natural fractures in the Ilam carbonates using high resolution Formation Micro Imager resistivity logs in two wells. A total of 51 breakouts with an overall length of 215 m were observed in the two wells, indicating a maximum horizontal stress orientation of 68°N (± 7.6°) in well A and 58°N (± 6.3°) in well B. Furthermore, the wellbore-derived stress orientations determined herein are consistent with those inferred from nearby earthquake focal mechanism solutions, indicating that stresses in the sedimentary cover are linked to the resistance forces generated by Arabia–Eurasia collision. Furthermore, the correlation between stress orientations estimated from earthquake focal mechanism solutions and breakouts indicates that focal mechanism solution data, which is often considered to be unreliable for stress field analysis near transform margins, may provide reliable information on the stress orientation near continental collision zones. The image log data also reveals three sets of open, and presumably hydraulically conductive, fractures with strikes of (i) 160–170°N, (ii) 110–140°N and (iii) 070–080°N. Fracture set (iii) is consistent with being formed and open in the present-day stress field. However, fracture sets (i) and (ii) strike at a high angle to the present-day maximum horizontal stress, and are interpreted herein to be the result of either pre- or syn-folding related forces. The observation that different sets of open fractures in the field can be either sensitive or insensitive to the present-day stress is critical for improving hydrocarbon recovery.|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2010 Elsevier|
|Appears in Collections:||Australian School of Petroleum publications|
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