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Type: Journal article
Title: Parallel evolution of genes and languages in the Caucasus region
Author: Balanovsky, O.
Haak, W.
Adler, C.
Cooper, A.
Dersarkissian, C.
Citation: Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2011; 28(10):2905-2920
Publisher: Oxford Univ Press
Issue Date: 2011
ISSN: 0737-4038
Statement of
Oleg Balanovsky, Khadizhat Dibirova, Anna Dybo, Oleg Mudrak, Svetlana Frolova, Elvira Pocheshkhova, Marc Haber, Daniel Platt, Theodore Schurr, Wolfgang Haak, Marina Kuznetsova, Magomed Radzhabov, Olga Balaganskaya, Alexey Romanov, Tatiana Zakharova, David F. Soria Hernanz, Pierre Zalloua, Sergey Koshel, Merritt Ruhlen, Colin Renfrew, R. Spencer Wells, Chris Tyler-Smith, Elena Balanovska and The Genographic Consortium
Abstract: We analyzed 40 single nucleotide polymorphism and 19 short tandem repeat Y-chromosomal markers in a large sample of 1,525 indigenous individuals from 14 populations in the Caucasus and 254 additional individuals representing potential source populations. We also employed a lexicostatistical approach to reconstruct the history of the languages of the North Caucasian family spoken by the Caucasus populations. We found a different major haplogroup to be prevalent in each of four sets of populations that occupy distinct geographic regions and belong to different linguistic branches. The haplogroup frequencies correlated with geography and, even more strongly, with language. Within haplogroups, a number of haplotype clusters were shown to be specific to individual populations and languages. The data suggested a direct origin of Caucasus male lineages from the Near East, followed by high levels of isolation, differentiation, and genetic drift in situ. Comparison of genetic and linguistic reconstructions covering the last few millennia showed striking correspondences between the topology and dates of the respective gene and language trees and with documented historical events. Overall, in the Caucasus region, unmatched levels of gene–language coevolution occurred within geographically isolated populations, probably due to its mountainous terrain.
Keywords: Genographic Consortium
Chromosomes, Human, Y
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Genetics, Population
Evolution, Molecular
Microsatellite Repeats
Gene Pool
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
European Continental Ancestry Group
DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msr126
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest 5
Australian Centre for Ancient DNA publications
Environment Institute publications

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