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|Title:||Rhizosphere interactions between microorganisms and plants govern iron and phosphorus acquisition along the root axis - model and research methods|
|Citation:||Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 2011; 43(5):883-894|
|Publisher:||Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd|
|Petra Marschner, David Crowley and Zed Rengel|
|Abstract:||Iron and phosphorus availability is low in many soils; hence, microorganisms and plants have evolved mechanisms to acquire these nutrients by altering the chemical conditions that affect their solubility. In plants, this includes exudation of organic acid anions and acidification of the rhizosphere by release of protons in response to iron and phosphorus deficiency. Grasses (family Poaceae) and microorganisms further respond to Fe deficiency by production and release of specific chelators (phytosiderophores and siderophores, respectively) that complex Fe to enhance its diffusion to the cell surface. In the rhizosphere, the mutual demand for Fe and P results in competition between plants and microorganisms with the latter being more competitive due to their ability to decompose plant-derived chelators and their proximity to the root surface; however microbial competitiveness is strongly affected by carbon availability. On the other hand, plants are able to avoid direct competition with microorganisms due to the spatial and temporal variability in the amount and composition of exudates they release into the rhizosphere. In this review, we present a model of the interactions that occur between microorganisms and roots along the root axis, and discuss advantages and limitations of methods that can be used to study these interactions at nanometre to centimetre scales. Our analysis suggests mechanisms such as increasing turnover of microbial biomass or enhanced nutrient uptake capacity of mature root zones that may enhance plant competitiveness could be used to develop plant genotypes with enhanced efficiency in nutrient acquisition. Our model of interactions between plants and microorganisms in the rhizosphere will be useful for understanding the biogeochemistry of P and Fe and for enhancing the effectiveness of fertilization.|
|Rights:||© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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