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|Title:||Spontaneous gene flow from rapeseed (Brassica napus) to wild Brassica oleracea|
|Citation:||Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 2006; 273(1605):3111-3115|
|Publisher:||The Royal Society|
|Caroline S. Ford, Joël Allainguillaume, Phil Grilli-Chantler, Giulia Cuccato, Charlotte J. Allender and Mike J. Wilkinson|
|Abstract:||Research on the environmental risks of gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild relatives has traditionally emphasized recipients yielding most hybrids. For GM rapeseed (Brassica napus), interest has centred on the ‘frequently hybridizing’ Brassica rapa over relatives such as Brassica oleracea, where spontaneous hybrids are unreported in the wild. In two sites, where rapeseed and wild B. oleracea grow together, we used flow cytometry and crop-specific microsatellite markers to identify one triploid F1 hybrid, together with nine diploid and two near triploid introgressants. Given the newly discovered capacity for spontaneous introgression into B. oleracea, we then surveyed associated flora and fauna to evaluate the capacity of both recipients to harm cohabitant species with acknowledged conservational importance. Only B. oleracea occupies rich communities containing species afforded legislative protection; these include one rare micromoth species that feeds on B. oleracea and warrants further assessment. We conclude that increased attention should now focus on B. oleracea and similar species that yield few crop-hybrids, but possess scope to affect rare or endangered associates.|
|Keywords:||Genetically modified crops; gene flow; transgene; Brassica napus; Brassica oleracea; associated flora and fauna|
|Description:||Published online 26 September 2006|
|Rights:||© 2006 The Royal Society|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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