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|Scopus||Web of Science®||Altmetric|
|Title:||Genetic, environmental and epigenetic influences on variation in human tooth number, size and shape|
|Citation:||Odontology, 2012; 100(1):1-9|
|Publisher:||Springer Japan KK|
|Grant Townsend, Michelle Bockmann, Toby Hughes and Alan Brook|
|Abstract:||The aim of this review is to highlight some key recent developments in studies of tooth number, size and shape that are providing better insights into the roles of genetic, environmental and epigenetic factors in the process of dental development. Advances in molecular genetics are helping to clarify how epigenetic factors influence the spatial and temporal regulation of the complex processes involved in odontogenesis. At the phenotypic level, the development of sophisticated systems for image analysis is enabling new dental phenotypes to be defined. The 2D and 3D data that are generated by these imaging systems can then be analysed with mathematical approaches, such as geometric morphometric analysis. By gathering phenotypic data and DNA from twins, it is now possible to use ‘genome-wide’ association studies and the monozygotic co-twin design to identify important genes in odontogenesis and also to clarify how epigenetic and environmental factors can affect this process. Given that many of the common dental anomalies affecting the human dentition are interrelated, apparently reflecting pleiotropic genetic effects, the discoveries and new directions described in this paper should have important implications for clinical dental practice in the future.|
|Keywords:||Teeth; twins; phenomics; epigenetics; genes|
|Rights:||© The Society of The Nippon Dental University 2011|
|Appears in Collections:||Dentistry publications|
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