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|Title:||Toll-like receptors in chronic pain|
|Citation:||Experimental Neurology, 2012; 234(2):316-329|
|Publisher:||Academic Press Inc Elsevier Science|
|Lauren Nicotra, Lisa C. Loram, Linda R. Watkins and Mark R. Hutchinson|
|Abstract:||Proinflammatory central immune signaling contributes significantly to the initiation and maintenance of heightened pain states. Recent discoveries have implicated the innate immune system, pattern recognition Toll-like receptors in triggering these proinflammatory central immune signaling events. These exciting developments have been complemented by the discovery of neuronal expression of Toll-like receptors, suggesting pain pathways can be activated directly by the detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns or danger associated molecular patterns. This review will examine the evidence to date implicating Toll-like receptors and their associated signaling components in heightened pain states. In addition, insights into the impact Toll-like receptors have on priming central immune signaling systems for heightened pain states will be discussed. The influence possible sex differences in Toll-like receptor signaling have for female pain and the recognition of small molecule xenobiotics by Toll-like receptors will also be reviewed.|
|Keywords:||Animals; Humans; Signal Transduction; Sex Characteristics; Female; Male; Toll-Like Receptors; Immunity, Innate; Chronic Pain; Nociception|
|Rights:||Crown Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Medicine publications|
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