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|Title:||The Availability of Copper in Soils Historically Amended with Sewage Sludge, Manure, and Compost|
|Citation:||Journal of Environmental Quality, 2012; 41(0002):506-514|
|Publisher:||Amer Soc Agronomy|
|Erik Smolders, Koen Oorts, Enzo Lombi, Ilse Schoeters, Yibing Ma, Sharyn Zrna, and Mike J. McLaughlin|
|Abstract:||Metals in soils amended with sewage sludge are typically less available compared with those in soils spiked with soluble metal salts. However, it is unclear if this difference remains in the long term. A survey of copper (Cu) availability was made in soils amended with sewage sludge, manure, and compost, collectively named organic amendments. Paired sets of amended and control soils were collected from 22 field trials where the organic amendments had aged up to 112 yr. Amended soils had higher total Cu concentrations (range, 2–220 mg Cu kg−1; median, 15 mg Cu kg−1) and organic C (range, 1–16 g kg−1; median, 4 g kg−1) than control soils. All samples were freshly spiked with CuCl2, and the toxicity of added Cu to barley was compared between amended and control soils. The toxicity of added Cu was significantly lower in amended soils than in control soil in 15 sets by, on average, a factor of 1.4, suggesting that aged amendments do not largely increase Cu binding sites. The fraction of added Cu that is isotopic exchangeable Cu (labile Cu) was compared between control soils freshly spiked with CuCl2 and amended soils with both soils at identical total Cu concentrations. Copper derived from amendments was significantly less labile (on average 5.9-fold) than freshly added Cu in 18 sets of soils. This study shows that Cu availability after long-term applications of organic amendments is lower than that of freshly added Cu2+ salts, mainly because of its lower availability in the original matrix and ageing reactions than because of increased metal binding sites in soil.|
|Keywords:||Plants; Copper; Salts; Manure; Soil; Sewage; Solubility|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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