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|Title:||Stereophotogrammetric analysis of nasolabial morphology among Asian Malays: Influence of age and sex|
|Citation:||Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 2012; 49(4):463-471|
|Publisher:||Amer Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Assoc|
|Ali R. Al-Khatib, Zainul A. Rajion, Sam'an M. Masudi, Rozita Hassan, Peter J. Anderson, Grant C. Townsend|
|Abstract:||Objective: It is clear that population-specific norms should be used when planning plastic and reconstructive surgery for selected patients. In this study, we aimed to generate nasal and labial reference values by applying a stereophotogrammetric technique. A further aim was to investigate the effect of sexual dimorphism, age-related changes, and the interrelation between nasal and labial morphology. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The data were collected from different locations on the Malaysian peninsula. Participants: A total of 276 Asian Malays (138 males and 138 females) were included in this study, and a three-dimensional system was used for capturing data. The sample was divided into three age groups: 13 to 14, 15 to 17, and 18 to 36 years. Main Outcome Measure(s): Twenty-five dimensions of the nose and lips were measured and analyzed separately in males and females. Results: Significant differences between males and females were identified in 11 distances, and significant effects of age were found in most of the dimensions (p < .05). Significant correlations between the nasal and labial dimensions were recorded, particularly between lateral lip height and width of the ala insertion. A principal component analysis showed interrelationships between the nasal width distances and upper lip height. Conclusion: This study has provided a new three-dimensional database for nose and lip morphology in Malays and demonstrated patterns of variation that can be used by surgeons to make comparisons within and between different human populations and also to develop treatment plans for their patients.|
|Keywords:||Asians; faces; morphology; soft tissues; stereophotogrammetry|
|Rights:||© Copyright 2012 American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association|
|Appears in Collections:||Dentistry publications|
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