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dc.contributor.authorRied, K.en
dc.contributor.authorSullivan, T.en
dc.contributor.authorFakler, P.en
dc.contributor.authorFrank, O.en
dc.contributor.authorStocks, N.en
dc.identifier.citationThe Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012; 2012(8):1-84en
dc.descriptionExtent: 82p.en
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease attributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently additional trials had conflicting results. OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of flavanol-rich chocolate or cocoa products on blood pressure in people with or without hypertension. SEARCH METHODS We searched the following electronic databases from inception to November 2011: Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. In addition we searched international trial registries, and the reference lists of review articles and included trials. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised controlled trials (RCT) investigating the effects of chocolate or cocoa products on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults for a minimum of two weeks duration. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in each trial in consultation with a third author. Random effects meta-analyses on all studies fitting the inclusion criteria were conducted using Review Manager version 5.1 and Stata version 12. Heterogeneity was explored by subgroup analyses and univariate meta-regression analysis of several variables including dosage of flavanol content (total or monomers) in chocolate or cocoa products, blinding, baseline blood pressure, theobromine content, sugar content, body-mass-index (BMI), duration and age. MAIN RESULTS Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses of the 20 studies involving 856 mainly healthy participants revealed a statistically significant blood pressure reducing effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products compared with control in short-term trials of 2-18 weeks duration: Mean difference SBP (95%CI): -2.77 (-4.72, -0.82) mm Hg, p=0.005, n=20; mean difference DBP (95%CI): - 2.20 (-3.46, -0.93) mm Hg, p=0.006, n=19 available for DBP. Trials provided participants with 30-1080 mg of flavanols (mean=545.5 mg) in 3.6-105 g of cocoa products per day in the active intervention group. In half of the trials (n=10) the active group consumed 500-750 mg of flavanols per day. The control group received either a flavanol-free product (n=12) or a low-flavanol containing cocoa powder (6.4 and 41 mg flavanols, n=8). Subgroup meta-analysis of trials with a flavanol-free control group revealed a significant blood pressure reducing effect, in contrast to trials using a low-flavanol product in the control group. This analysis may have been confounded by trial duration and the level of blinding of participants. Trial duration was short (mean 4.4 weeks, range 2-8 weeks, n=19, and one trial of 18 weeks). A significant blood pressure reducing effect was evident in trials of 2 weeks duration (n=9), but not in trials of >2 weeks duration (n=11). It is important to note that seven out of the nine trials (78%) of 2 weeks duration also had a flavanol-free control group. Therefore, subgroup analysis by duration might be confounded by flavanol dosage used in the control groups, and the level of blinding of participants. Adverse effects including gastrointestinal complaints and distaste of the trial product were reported by 5% of patients in the active cocoa intervention group and 1% of patients in the control groups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Flavanol-rich chocolate and cocoa products may have a small but statistically significant eff ect in lowering blood pressure by 2-3 mm Hg in the short term. Our findings are limited by the heterogeneity between trials, which was explored by univariate meta-regression and subgroup analyses. Su...en
dc.description.statementofresponsibilityKarin Ried, Thomas R Sullivan, Peter Fakler, Oliver R Frank, Nigel P Stocksen
dc.publisherUpdate Software Ltden
dc.rightsCopyright © 2012 The Cochrane Collaboration.en
dc.subjectHumans; Cacao; Hypertension; Flavonols; Blood Pressure; Adult; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topicen
dc.titleEffect of cocoa on blood pressureen
dc.typeJournal articleen
pubs.library.collectionGeneral Practice publicationsen
dc.identifier.orcidFrank, O. [0000-0001-9028-1835]en
dc.identifier.orcidStocks, N. [0000-0002-9018-0361]en
Appears in Collections:General Practice publications

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