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|Title:||Novel venom proteins produced by differential domain-expression strategies in beaded lizards and gila monsters (genus Heloderma)|
|Citation:||Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2010; 27(2):395-407|
|Publisher:||Oxford Univ Press|
|Bryan G. Fry, Kim Roelants, Kelly Winter, Wayne C. Hodgson, Laura Griesman, Hang Fai Kwok, Denis Scanlon, John Karas, Chris Shaw, Lily Wong and Janette A. Norman|
|Abstract:||The origin and evolution of venom proteins in helodermatid lizards were investigated by multidisciplinary techniques. Our analyses elucidated novel toxin types resultant from three unique domain-expression processes: 1) The first full-length sequences of lethal toxin isoforms (helofensins) revealed this toxin type to be constructed by an ancestral monodomain, monoproduct gene (beta-defensin) that underwent three tandem domain duplications to encode a tetradomain, monoproduct with a possible novel protein fold; 2) an ancestral monodomain gene (encoding a natriuretic peptide) was medially extended to become a pentadomain, pentaproduct through the additional encoding of four tandemly repeated proline-rich peptides (helokinestatins), with the five discrete peptides liberated from each other by posttranslational proteolysis; and 3) an ancestral multidomain, multiproduct gene belonging to the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/ glucagon family being mutated to encode for a monodomain, monoproduct (exendins) followed by duplication and diversification into two variant classes (exendins 1 and 2 and exendins 3 and 4). Bioactivity characterization of exendin and helokinestatin elucidated variable cardioactivity between isoforms within each class. These results highlight the importance of utilizing evolutionary-based search strategies for biodiscovery and the virtually unexplored potential of lizard venoms in drug design and discovery.|
|Keywords:||Venom; adaptive evolution; molecular evolution; protein; toxin; Heloderma; byetta; exendin|
|Rights:||© The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Medical Sciences publications|
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