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Type: Journal article
Title: Physiological evidence consistent with reduced neuroplasticity in human adolescents born preterm
Author: Pitcher, J.
Riley, A.
Doeltgen, S.
Kurylowicz, L.
Rothwell, J.
McAllister, S.
Smith, A.
Clow, A.
Kennaway, D.
Ridding, M.
Citation: The Journal of Neuroscience, 2012; 32(46):16410-16416
Publisher: Society for Neuroscience
Issue Date: 2012
ISSN: 0270-6474
Statement of
Julia B. Pitcher, Alysha M. Riley, Sebastian H. Doeltgen, Lisa Kurylowicz, John C. Rothwell, Suzanne M. McAllister, Ashleigh E. Smith, Angela Clow, David J. Kennaway, and Michael C. Ridding
Abstract: Preterm-born children commonly experience motor, cognitive, and learning difficulties that may be accompanied by altered brain microstructure, connectivity, and neurochemistry. However, the mechanisms linking the altered neurophysiology with the behavioral outcomes are unknown. Here we provide the first physiological evidence that human adolescents born preterm at or before 37 weeks of completed gestation have a significantly reduced capacity for cortical neuroplasticity, the key overall mechanism underlying learning and memory. We examined motor cortex neuroplasticity in three groups of adolescents who were born after gestations of ≤32 completed weeks (early preterm), 33–37 weeks (late preterm), and 38–41 weeks (term) using a noninvasive transcranial magnetic brain stimulation technique to induce long-term depression (LTD)-like neuroplasticity. Compared with term-born adolescents, both early and late preterm adolescents had reduced LTD-like neuroplasticity in response to brain stimulation that was also associated with low salivary cortisol levels. We also compared neuroplasticity in term-born adolescents with that in term-born young adults, finding that the motor cortex retains a relatively enhanced neuroplastic capacity in adolescence. These findings provide a possible mechanistic link between the altered brain physiology of preterm birth and the subsequent associated behavioral deficits, particularly in learning and memory. They also suggest that altered hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function due to preterm birth may be a significant modulator of this altered neuroplasticity. This latter finding may offer options in the development of possible therapeutic interventions.
Keywords: Brain
Motor Cortex
Birth Weight
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Evoked Potentials, Motor
Gestational Age
Neuronal Plasticity
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Rights: Copyright © 2012 the authors. Authors grant JNeurosci a license to publish their work and copyright remains with the author. Material published from 2010 to 2014 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-NC-SA).
DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3079-12.2012
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Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest
Obstetrics and Gynaecology publications

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