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|Title:||Comparison of mechanical agitation, steam injection and air bubbling for foaming milk of different types|
|Citation:||Milchwissenschaft-Milk Science International, 2009; 64(2):121-124|
|Jaclyn Goh, Olena Kravchuk, H. C. Deeth|
|Abstract:||Foaming is an important process in the production of many food products. It usually involves mechanical agitation or gas injection. Foaming of milk for making cappuccino coffee, a common practice in many countries, involves the injection of steam into cold milk until the temperature reaches ∼ 65 °C. However, it is also possible to foam milk at this temperature using mechanical agitation or air bubbling. The objective of this research was to compare mechanical agitation, steam injection and air bubbling for foaming different types of milk. Five types of milk were chosen, namely reconstituted skim milk, pasteurized skim milk, pasteurized homogenized full-cream milk, UHT skim milk and UHT full-cream milk. Foaming characteristics were assessed in terms of foam stability and foam strength. There was little difference in the stability of the foams produced by the three methods of foaming but steam injection produced significantly stronger foams compared to air bubbling while the effect of mechanical agitation relative to steam and air bubbling varied considerably between milk types. Overall, foams with greater stability and strength were produced from the skim milks than from full-cream milks with the difference being most pronounced when mechanical agitation was used.|
|Keywords:||Foaming milk (foam characteristics, comparison of methods)|
|Rights:||Copyright status unknown|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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