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Type: Journal article
Title: Role of endogenous microbiota, probiotics and their biological products in human health
Author: Howarth, G.
Wang, H.
Citation: Nutrients, 2013; 5(1):58-81
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2013
ISSN: 2072-6643
Statement of
Gordon S. Howarth and Hanru Wang
Abstract: Although gut diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, mucositis and the alimentary cancers share similar pathogenetic features, further investigation is required into new treatment modalities. An imbalance in the gut microbiota, breached gut integrity, bacterial invasion, increased cell apoptosis to proliferation ratio, inflammation and impaired immunity may all contribute to their pathogenesis. Probiotics are defined as live bacteria, which when administered in sufficient amounts, exert beneficial effects to the gastrointestinal tract. More recently, probiotic-derived factors including proteins and other molecules released from living probiotics, have also been shown to exert beneficial properties. In this review we address the potential for probiotics, with an emphasis on probiotic-derived factors, to reduce the severity of digestive diseases and further discuss the known mechanisms by which probiotics and probiotic-derived factors exert their physiological effects.
Keywords: microbiota
probiotic-derived factors
probiotic mechanisms
intestinal function
Rights: © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (
DOI: 10.3390/nu5010058
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