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Type: Journal article
Title: HIV non-B subtype distribution: Emerging trends and risk factors for imported and local infections newly diagnosed in South Australia
Author: Hawke, K.
Waddell, R.
Gordon, D.
Ratcliff, R.
Ward, P.
Kaldor, J.
Citation: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 2013; 29(2):311-317
Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert Inc Publ
Issue Date: 2013
ISSN: 0889-2229
Statement of
Karen G. Hawke, Russell G. Waddell, David L. Gordon, Rodney M. Ratcliff, Paul R. Ward, and John M. Kaldor
Abstract: Monitoring HIV subtype distribution is important for understanding transmission dynamics. Subtype B has historically been dominant in Australia, but in recent years new clades have appeared. Since 2000, clade data have been collected as part of HIV surveillance in South Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for HIV-1 non-B subtypes. The study population was composed of newly diagnosed, genotyped HIV subjects in South Australia between 2000 and 2010. We analyzed time trends and subtype patterns in this cohort; notification data were aggregated into three time periods (2000–2003, 2004–2006, and 2007–2010). Main outcome measures were number of new non-B infections by year, exposure route, and other demographic characteristics. There were 513 new HIV diagnoses; 425 had information on subtype. The majority (262/425) were in men who have sex with men (MSM), predominantly subtype B and acquired in Australia. Infections acquired in Australia decreased from 77% (2000–2003) to 64% (2007–2010) (p=0.007) and correspondingly the proportion of subtype B declined from 85% to 68% (p=0.002). Non-B infections were predominantly (83%) heterosexual contacts, mostly acquired overseas (74%). The majority (68%) of non-B patients were born outside of Australia. There was a nonsignificant increase from 1.6% to 4.2% in the proportion of locally transmitted non-B cases (p=0.3). Three non-B subtypes and two circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) were identified: CRF_AE (n=41), C (n=36), CRF_AG (n=13), A (n=9), and D (n=2). There has been a substantial increase over the past decade in diagnosed non-B infections, primarily through cases acquired overseas.
Keywords: Humans
HIV Infections
Risk Factors
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Molecular Sequence Data
South Australia
Young Adult
Molecular Epidemiology
Rights: © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
DOI: 10.1089/aid.2012.0082
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest
Microbiology and Immunology publications

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