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Type: Journal article
Title: Healing responses following transverse root fracture: a historical review and case reports showing healing with (a) calcified tissue and (b) dense fibrous connective tissue
Author: Heithersay, G.
Kahler, W.
Citation: Dental Traumatology, 2013; 29(4):253-265
Publisher: Munksgaard Int Publ Ltd
Issue Date: 2013
ISSN: 1600-4469
Statement of
Geoffrey S. Heithersay, Bill Kahler
Abstract: <h4>Background</h4>The understanding and management of transverse intra-alveolar root fractures has evolved to its current high level of sophistication and clinical success from foundations laid down by histological studies as early as the mid-nineteenth century.<h4>Significance</h4>The aim of the review was to highlight those earlier histological reports and studies that have contributed to the current understanding of the biological processes involved in the healing of transverse root fractures. Healing of a transverse root fracture by calcified tissue was demonstrated histologically by Howe in 1926, while Boulger in 1928 showed the two other patterns of root fracture healing, namely the interposition of fibrous connective tissue and the interposition of bone and periodontal ligament around both fractured segments. Other major histological reports around that time came from members of the so-called 'The Vienna group of Illinois', who had a significant influence in the development of oral biology worldwide. Other important reports and an experimental study emanated from Germany and Switzerland in the late 30s and early 40s, followed in the 1950s and early 1960s by histological material principally from Sweden, Denmark, France, the USA and Britain. Jens Andreasen and Erik Hjörting-Hansen's landmark paper in 1967 included new histological reports and a classification of healing responses following transverse root fractures. The expansion of knowledge related to root fractures since that time has been exponential, with major contributions from Scandinavia and several other countries.<h4>Case reports</h4>Accompanying the historical review are two case reports with histology of root fracture healing by (a) calcified tissue and (b) dense fibrous connective tissue. The role of the pulp and the periodontal ligament in the repair process is described and the clinical significance discussed with particular emphasis to diagnosis and orthodontic management.
Keywords: root fractures
root fracture healing
dental traumatology history
Rights: © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S
DOI: 10.1111/edt.12029
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Dentistry publications

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