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|Title:||Behaviour of fullerenes (C₆₀) in the terrestrial environment: potential release from biosolids-amended soils|
|Other Titles:||Behaviour of fullerenes (C(60)) in the terrestrial environment: potential release from biosolids-amended soils|
|Citation:||Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2013; 262:496-503|
|Publisher:||Elsevier Science BV|
|Divina A. Navarro, Rai S. Kookana, Jason K. Kirby, Sheridan M. Martin, Ali Shareef, Jun Du, Mike J. McLaughlin|
|Abstract:||Owing of their wide-range of commercial applications, fullerene (C60) nanoparticles, are likely to reach environments through the application of treated sludge (biosolids) from wastewater treatment plants to soils. We examined the release behaviour of C60 from contaminated biosolids added to soils with varying physicochemical characteristics. Incubation studies were carried out in the dark for up to 24 weeks, by adding biosolids spiked (1.5mg/kg) with three forms of C60 (suspended in water, in humic acid, and precipitated/particulate) to six contrasting soils. Leaching of different biosolids+soil systems showed that only small fractions of C60 (<5% of applied amount) were released, depending on incubation time and soil properties (particularly dissolved organic carbon content). Release of C60 from unamended soils was greater (at least twice as much) than from biosolids-amended soils. The form of C60 used to spike the biosolids had no significant effect on the release of C60 from the different systems. Contact time of C60 in these systems only slightly increased the apparent release up to 8 weeks, followed by a decrease to 24 weeks. Mass balance analysis at the completion of the experiment revealed that 20-60% of the initial C60 applied could not be accounted for in these systems; the reasons for this are discussed.|
|Keywords:||Fullerenes; nC60; Environmental fate; Biosolids; Nanoparticles; Soil|
|Rights:||Crown copyright © 2013|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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