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Type: Journal article
Title: Clinicopathological findings in non-human primate recipients of porcine renal xenografts: quantitative and qualitative evaluation of proteinuria
Author: Pintore, L.
Paltrinieri, S.
Vadori, M.
Besenzon, F.
Cavicchioli, L.
De Benedictis, G.
Calabrese, F.
Cozzi, E.
Nottle, M.
Robson, S.
Cowan, P.
Castagnaro, M.
Citation: Xenotransplantation, 2013; 20(6):449-457
Publisher: Blackwell Munksgaard
Issue Date: 2013
ISSN: 0908-665X
Statement of
Laura Pintore, Saverio Paltrinieri, Marta Vadori, Federica Besenzon, Laura Cavicchioli, Giulia Maria De Benedictis, Fiorella Calabrese, Emanuele Cozzi, Mark B. Nottle, Simon C. Robson, Peter J. Cowan and Massimo Castagnaro
Abstract: <h4>Background</h4>Immunological and histopathological features in pig-to-primate renal xenotransplantation are widely studied. Only limited data have been reported about clinicopathological findings in primate recipients of life-supporting renal xenografts. In human medicine, proteinuria represents a common complication in kidney transplantation and is associated with impaired graft survival. The detection of low molecular weight proteins of tubular origin is considered an early method for predicting potential graft rejection. In this study, the presence and the significance of quantitative and qualitative proteinuria were evaluated in xenotransplanted non-human primates in which kidney function was supported only by the transplanted organ.<h4>Methods</h4>Eight bilaterally nephrectomized cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were transplanted with a single kidney from α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pigs transgenic for human CD39, CD55, CD59, and α1,2-fucosyltransferase. In addition to hematological and biochemical analyses, quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteinuria was evaluated by urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC ratio) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis (SDS-AGE), respectively.<h4>Results</h4>The main hematological and biochemical changes recorded after transplantation were a progressive anemia and a severe and progressive decrease in total proteins. In urine samples, the UPC ratio was low before transplantation and increased after transplantation. Similarly, SDS-AGE was negative before transplantation, but bands consistent with mixed (i.e., tubular and glomerular) proteinuria were observed in all samples collected post-transplantation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The study of clinicopathological changes in cynomolgus monkey renal xenograft recipients provides a valid help in monitoring the health conditions in the post-transplant period. Moreover, the evaluation of UPC ratio and the use of SDS-AGE technique in urine samples of cynomolgus monkey renal xenograft recipients may be considered a valid, inexpensive, and less time-consuming method than more sophisticated techniques in monitoring proteinuria. Proteinuria and presence of low molecular weight (LMW) proteins were consistently found in urine after transplantation, independent of fluctuations in renal function.
Keywords: primate
renal xenograft
Rights: © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S
DOI: 10.1111/xen.12063
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Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest 4
Obstetrics and Gynaecology publications

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