Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/81377
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Type: Journal article
Title: Genome of the long-living sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.)
Author: Ming, R.
Watling, J.
Citation: Genome Biology (Print): biology for the post-genomic era, 2013; 14(5):R41-1-R41-11
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd
Issue Date: 2013
ISSN: 1465-6906
1759-6653
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Ray Ming...Jennifer R Watling...et.al
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot with agricultural, medicinal, cultural and religious importance. It was domesticated in Asia about 7,000 years ago, and cultivated for its rhizomes and seeds as a food crop. It is particularly noted for its 1,300-year seed longevity and exceptional water repellency, known as the lotus effect. The latter property is due to the nanoscopic closely packed protuberances of its self-cleaning leaf surface, which have been adapted for the manufacture of a self-cleaning industrial paint, Lotusan. RESULTS: The genome of the China Antique variety of the sacred lotus was sequenced with Illumina and 454 technologies, at respective depths of 101× and 5.2×. The final assembly has a contig N50 of 38.8 kbp and a scaffold N50 of 3.4 Mbp, and covers 86.5% of the estimated 929 Mbp total genome size. The genome notably lacks the paleo-triplication observed in other eudicots, but reveals a lineage-specific duplication. The genome has evidence of slow evolution, with a 30% slower nucleotide mutation rate than observed in grape. Comparisons of the available sequenced genomes suggest a minimum gene set for vascular plants of 4,223 genes. Strikingly, the sacred lotus has 16 COG2132 multi-copper oxidase family proteins with root-specific expression; these are involved in root meristem phosphate starvation, reflecting adaptation to limited nutrient availability in an aquatic environment. CONCLUSIONS: The slow nucleotide substitution rate makes the sacred lotus a better resource than the current standard, grape, for reconstructing the pan-eudicot genome, and should therefore accelerate comparative analysis between eudicots and monocots.
Keywords: Nelumbo; Vitis; Amino Acid Substitution; Adaptation, Biological; Evolution, Molecular; Phylogeny; Genome, Plant; Molecular Sequence Data; Mutation Rate
Rights: © 2013 Ming et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
RMID: 0020132193
DOI: 10.1186/gb-2013-14-5-r41
Appears in Collections:Earth and Environmental Sciences publications

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