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|Title:||A fossil fuchsia (Onagraceae) flower and an anther mass with in situ pollen from the early Miocene of New Zealand|
|Citation:||American Journal of Botany, 2013; 100(10):2052-2065|
|Publisher:||Botanical Soc Amer Inc|
|Daphne E. Lee, John G. Conran, Jennifer M. Bannister, Uwe Kaulfuss, And Dallas C. Mildenhall|
|Abstract:||PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Fuchsia (Onagraceae) anthers, pollen, and an ornithophilous Fuchsia-like flower from an earliest Miocene lacustrine diatomite deposit at Foulden Maar, southern New Zealand confirm a long record for Fuchsia in New Zealand and probably an equally long history for its distinctive honeyeater pollination syndrome. The anthers contain in situ pollen of the fossil palynomorph previously assigned to Diporites aspis Pocknall et Mildenh. (Onagraceae: Fuchsia L.). METHODS: We undertook comparative studies of the flower and anther morphology of the newly discovered macrofossils and compared the in situ pollen grains from the anthers with dispersed pollen grains from extant species. KEY RESULTS: The anther mass is referred to a new, extinct species, Fuchsia antiqua D.E.Lee, Conran, Bannister, U.Kaulfuss & Mildenh. (Onagraceae), and is associated with a fossilized Fuchsia-like flower from the same small mining pit. Because Diporites van der Hammen is typified by a fungal sporomorph, the replacement name for D. aspis is Koninidites aspis (Pocknall & Mildenh.) Mildenh. gen. & comb. nov. Phylogenetic placement of the fossils agrees with a proximal position to either sect. Skinnera or sect. Procumbentes. These are the oldest macrofossils of Fuchsia globally. CONCLUSIONS: The floral structures are remarkably similar to those of modern New Zealand Fuchsia. They suggest that the distinctive honeyeater bird-pollination syndrome/association seen in modern New Zealand was already established by the late Oligocene–earliest Miocene. The implications for the biogeography and paleoecology of Fuchsia in Australasia are discussed.|
|Keywords:||Anthers; biogeography; fl ower; Fuchsia antiqua; in situ pollen; Koninidites aspis; Miocene; Oligocene; Onagraceae.|
|Rights:||© 2013 Botanical Society of America|
|Appears in Collections:||Earth and Environmental Sciences publications|
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