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Type: Journal article
Title: Effects of intraduodenal glutamine on incretin hormone and insulin release, the glycemic response to an intraduodenal glucose infusion, and antropyloroduodenal motility in health and type 2 diabetes
Author: Chang, J.
Wu, T.
Greenfield, J.
Samocha-Bonet, D.
Horowitz, M.
Rayner, C.
Citation: Diabetes Care, 2013; 36(8):2262-2265
Publisher: Amer Diabetes Assoc
Issue Date: 2013
ISSN: 0149-5992
Statement of
Jessica Chang, Tongzhi Wu, Jerry R. Greenfield, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Michael Horowitz, and Christopher K. Rayner
Abstract: OBJECTIVE Glutamine reduces postprandial glycemia when given before oral glucose. We evaluated whether this is mediated by stimulation of insulin and/or slowing of gastric emptying. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten healthy subjects were studied during intraduodenal (ID) infusion of glutamine (7.5 or 15 g) or saline over 30 min, followed by glucose (75 g over 100 min), while recording antropyloroduodenal pressures. Ten patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were also studied with 15 g glutamine or saline. RESULTS ID glutamine stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1; healthy: P < 0.05; T2DM: P < 0.05), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP; P = 0.098; P < 0.05), glucagon (P < 0.01; P < 0.001), insulin (P = 0.05; P < 0.01), and phasic pyloric pressures (P < 0.05; P < 0.05), but did not lower blood glucose (P = 0.077; P = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS Glutamine does not lower glycemia after ID glucose, despite stimulating GLP-1, GIP, and insulin, probably due to increased glucagon. Its capacity for pyloric stimulation suggests that delayed gastric emptying is a major mechanism for lowering glycemia when glutamine is given before oral glucose.
Keywords: Duodenum
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
Blood Glucose
Gastric Emptying
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Healthy Volunteers
Insulin Secretion
Rights: © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details.
DOI: 10.2337/dc12-1663
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