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|Title:||Unifying model of carpal mechanics based on computatinally derived isometric constraints and rules-based motion - the stable central column theory|
|Citation:||Hand Surgery, 2013; 39(4):353-363|
|Publisher:||World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.|
|M. J. Sandow and T. J. Fisher, C. Q. Howard, S. Papas|
|Abstract:||This study was part of a larger project to develop a (kinetic) theory of carpal motion based on computationally derived isometric constraints. Three-dimensional models were created from computed tomography scans of the wrists of ten normal subjects and carpal spatial relationships at physiological motion extremes were assessed. Specific points on the surface of the various carpal bones and the radius that remained isometric through range of movement were identified. Analysis of the isometric constraints and intercarpal motion suggests that the carpus functions as a stable central column (lunate–capitate–hamate–trapezoid–trapezium) with a supporting lateral column (scaphoid), which behaves as a ‘two gear four bar linkage’. The triquetrum functions as an ulnar translation restraint, as well as controlling lunate flexion. The ‘trapezoid’-shaped trapezoid places the trapezium anterior to the transverse plane of the radius and ulna, and thus rotates the principal axis of the central column to correspond to that used in the ‘dart thrower’s motion’. This study presents a forward kinematic analysis of the carpus that provides the basis for the development of a unifying kinetic theory of wrist motion based on isometric constraints and rules-based motion.|
|Keywords:||Carpal; central column; isometric; kinematic; kinetic; motion; theory; wrist|
|Rights:||© The Author(s) 2013|
|Appears in Collections:||Mechanical Engineering publications|
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