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Type: Journal article
Title: Linaclotide inhibits colonic nociceptors and relieves abdominal pain via guanylate cyclase-c and extracellular cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate
Other Titles: Linaclotide inhibits colonic nociceptors and relieves abdominal pain via guanylate cyclase-c and extracellular cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate
Author: Castro, J.
Harrington, A.
Hughes, P.
Martin, C.
Ge, P.
Shea, C.
Jin, H.
Jacobson, S.
Hannig, G.
Mann, E.
Cohen, M.
MacDougall, J.
Lavins, B.
Kurtz, C.
Silos-Santiago, I.
Johnston, J.
Blackshaw, L.
Brierley, S.
Citation: Gastroenterology, 2013; 145(6):1334-1346
Publisher: W B Saunders Co
Issue Date: 2013
ISSN: 0016-5085
Statement of
Joel Castro, Andrea M. Harrington, Patrick A. Hughes, Christopher M. Martin, Pei Ge, Courtney M. Shea, Hong Jin, Sarah Jacobson, Gerhard Hannig, Elizabeth Mann, Mitchell B. Cohen, James E. MacDougall, Bernard J. Lavins, Caroline B. Kurtz, Inmaculada Silos-Santiago, Jeffrey M. Johnston, Mark G. Currie, L. Ashley Blackshaw, and Stuart M. Brierley
Abstract: <h4>Background & aims</h4>Linaclotide is a minimally absorbed agonist of guanylate cyclase-C (GUCY2C or GC-C) that reduces symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Little is known about the mechanism by which linaclotide reduces abdominal pain in patients with IBS-C.<h4>Methods</h4>We determined the effects of linaclotide on colonic sensory afferents in healthy mice and those with chronic visceral hypersensitivity. We assessed pain transmission by measuring activation of dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord in response to noxious colorectal distention. Levels of Gucy2c messenger RNA were measured in tissues from mice using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. We used human intestinal cell lines to measure release of cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) by linaclotide. We performed a post-hoc analysis of data from a phase III, double-blind, parallel-group study in which 805 patients with IBS-C were randomly assigned to groups given an oral placebo or 290 μg linaclotide once daily for 26 weeks. We quantified changes in IBS-C symptoms, including abdominal pain.<h4>Results</h4>In mice, linaclotide inhibited colonic nociceptors with greater efficacy during chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Intra-colonic administration of linaclotide reduced signaling of noxious colorectal distention to the spinal cord. The colonic mucosa, but not neurons, was found to express linaclotide's target, GC-C. The downstream effector of GC-C, cGMP, was released after administration of linaclotide and also inhibited nociceptors. The effects of linaclotide were lost in Gucy2c(-/-) mice and prevented by inhibiting cGMP transporters or removing the mucosa. During 26 weeks of linaclotide administration, a significantly greater percentage of patients (70%) had at least a 30% reduction in abdominal pain compared with patients given placebo (50%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We have identified an analgesic mechanism of linaclotide: it activates GC-C expressed on mucosal epithelial cells, resulting in the production and release of cGMP. This extracellular cGMP acts on and inhibits nociceptors, thereby reducing nociception. We also found that linaclotide reduces chronic abdominal pain in patients with IBS-C.
Keywords: Colon
Cell Line
Caco-2 Cells
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Knockout
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Disease Models, Animal
Abdominal Pain
Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid
Natriuretic Peptides
Guanylate Cyclase
Receptors, Atrial Natriuretic Factor
Receptors, Peptide
Cyclic GMP
Treatment Outcome
Double-Blind Method
Aged, 80 and over
Middle Aged
Receptors, Guanylate Cyclase-Coupled
Receptors, Enterotoxin
Rights: © 2013 AGA Institute
DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.08.017
Grant ID: ARC
Published version:!/ContentPlayerCtrl/doPlayContent/1-s2.0-S0016508513011906/
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