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|Title:||Calcium release at fertilization: Artificially mimicking the oocyte's response to sperm|
|Citation:||Journal of Reproduction and Development, 2002; 48(4):313-333|
|Publisher:||Japanese Soc Animal Reproduction|
|Christopher G. Grupen, Mark B. Nottle and Hiroshi Nagashima|
|Abstract:||The mechanism of sperm-induced calcium release has been the subject of many studies since the development in the late 1950s of in vitro culture systems that support mammalian fertilization. Despite efforts to elucidate the nature of the signal from the sperm that triggers both the early and late events of oocyte activation, the precise mechanism remains unresolved. Now, with the advent of somatic nuclear transfer technologies, the need to better understand this unique process has been recognised. Nuclear transfer embryos must be induced to commence development artificially because the activating signal from the sperm is absent. The primary activating stimulus is a large increase in the concentration of intracellular-free calcium and numerous physical and chemical treatments have been found to induce calcium changes that initiate the events of oocyte activation. Although live cloned offspring have been produced in a number of species, the overall efficiencies of the nuclear transfer procedures described thus far are unacceptably low and phenotypic anomalies are common. With the aim of improving these efficiencies, researchers are developing artificial activation treatments which induce oocyte responses that mimic those induced by fertilizing sperm. One strategy is to replicate the pattern of calcium change more closely. Another strategy is to couple an activating stimulus with treatments that inhibit maturation (or M-phase) promoting factor (MPF) activity, which regulates meiotic progression in oocytes. This paper reviews what is understood of calcium release at fertilization and describes the treatments that have been used to induce oocyte activation artificially in parthenogenetic and nuclear transfer studies. The relative effectiveness of the strategies employed to mimic the oocyte's response to sperm are discussed.|
|Keywords:||Oocyte activation, Fertilization, Parthenogenesis, Nuclear transfer|
|Rights:||© 2002 The Japanese Society of Animal Reproduction|
|Appears in Collections:||Aurora harvest|
Obstetrics and Gynaecology publications
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