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|Title:||Nutrition, oseoporosis and aging|
|Citation:||Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1998; 854(1 TOWARDS PROLO):336-351|
|Publisher:||NEW YORK ACAD SCIENCES|
|B. E. Christopher Nordin, Allan G. Need, Tracy Steurer, Howard A. Morris, Barry E. Chatterton And Michael Horowitz|
|Abstract:||Loss of bone is an almost universal accompaniment of aging that proceeds at an average rate of 0.5-1% per annum from midlife onwards. There are at least four nutrients involved in this process: calcium, salt, protein, and vitamin D, at least in women. The pathogenesis of osteoporosis in men is more obscure. Calcium is a positive risk factor because calcium requirement rises at the menopause due to an increase in obligatory calcium loss and a small reduction in calcium absorption that persist to the end of life. A metaanalysis of 20 calcium trials shows that this process can generally be arrested by calcium supplementation, although there is some doubt about its effectiveness in the first few years after menopause. Salt is a negative risk factor because it increases obligatory calcium loss; every 100 mmol of sodium takes 1 mmol of calcium out of the body. Restricting salt intake lowers the rate of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Protein is another negative risk factor; increasing animal protein intake from 40 to 80 g daily increases urine calcium by about 1 mmol/day. Low protein intakes in third world countries may partially protect against osteoporosis. Vitamin D (sometimes called a nutrient and sometimes a hormone) is important because age-related vitamin D deficiency leads to malabsorption of calcium, accelerated bone loss, and increased risk of hip fracture. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to retard bone loss and reduce hip fracture incidence in elderly women.|
|Keywords:||Animals; Humans; Osteoporosis; Vitamin D; Diet; Aging; Sex Characteristics; Aged; Middle Aged; Female; Male; Nutritional Physiological Phenomena|
|Appears in Collections:||Medicine publications|
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