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Type: Journal article
Title: Dietary enrichment with fish oil prevents high fat-induced metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle in mice
Author: Philp, L.
Heilbronn, L.
Janovska, A.
Wittert, G.
Citation: PLoS One, 2015; 10(2):e0117494-1-e0117494-19
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Issue Date: 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Editor: Alemany, M.
Statement of
Lisa K. Philp, Leonie K. Heilbronn, Alena Janovska, Gary A. Wittert
Abstract: High saturated fat (HF-S) diets increase intramyocellular lipid, an effect ameliorated by omega-3 fatty acids in vitro and in vivo, though little is known about sex- and muscle fiber type-specific effects. We compared effects of standard chow, HF-S, and 7.5% HF-S replaced with fish oil (HF-FO) diets on the metabolic profile and lipid metabolism gene and protein content in red (soleus) and white (extensor digitorum longus) muscles of male and female C57BL/6 mice (n = 9-12/group). Weight gain was similar in HF-S- and HF-FO-fed groups. HF-S feeding increased mesenteric fat mass and lipid marker, Oil Red O, in red and mixed muscle; HF-FO increased interscapular brown fat mass. Compared to chow, HF-S and HF-FO increased expression of genes regulating triacylglycerol synthesis and fatty acid transport, HF-S suppressed genes and proteins regulating fatty acid oxidation, whereas HF-FO increased oxidative genes, proteins and enzymes and lipolytic gene content, whilst suppressing lipogenic genes. In comparison to HF-S, HF-FO further increased fat transporters, markers of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial content, and reduced lipogenic genes. No diet-by-sex interactions were observed. Neither diet influenced fiber type composition. However, some interactions between muscle type and diet were observed. HF-S induced changes in triacylglycerol synthesis and lipogenic genes in red, but not white, muscle, and mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative genes were suppressed by HF-S and increased by HF-FO in red muscle only. In conclusion, HF-S feeding promotes lipid storage in red muscle, an effect abrogated by the fish oil, which increases mediators of lipolysis, oxidation and thermogenesis while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Greater storage and synthesis, and lower oxidative genes in red, but not white, muscle likely contribute to lipid accretion encountered in red muscle. Despite several gender-dimorphic genes, both sexes exhibited a similar HF-S-induced metabolic and gene expression profile; likewise fish oil was similarly protective in both sexes.
Keywords: Muscle, Skeletal
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Isomerases
Racemases and Epimerases
Enoyl-CoA Hydratase
3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases
Acetyl-CoA C-Acyltransferase
Fish Oils
RNA, Messenger
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Lipid Metabolism
Fatty Acid Transport Proteins
Adipose Tissue, Brown
Adipose Tissue, White
Diet, High-Fat
Rights: © 2015 Philp et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License [], which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117494
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