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|Title:||Vagal and sympathetic influences on the ferret lower oesophageal sphincter|
|Citation:||Journal of the autonomic nervous system, 1997; 66(3):179-188|
|L.A Blackshaw, J.A Haupt, T Omari, J Dent|
|Abstract:||This study has investigated the relative involvement of cholinergic, adrenergic, nitric oxide and tachykininergic transmission in extrinsic neural influences on the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) in urethane anaesthetized ferrets. A micromanometric assembly (OD 1.75 mm) incorporating a sleeve sensor was used for high-fidelity oesophageal, LOS and gastric pressure measurement at low perfusion rates (< 0.1 ml/min). The LOS response to vagal and splanchnic nerve stimulation (0.5 ms pulse width, 10 s duration) was frequency- and voltage-dependent. LOS responses to stimulation at 20 V, 10 Hz were investigated in separate groups of animals with either L-NAME (100 mg/kg), hexamethonium (15 mg/kg), guanethidine (5 mg/kg), CP96,345 (NK-1 antagonist, 4 mg/kg), atropine (0.4 mg/kg) or propranolol (1 mg/kg). Propranolol treatment was followed by yohimbine (1 mg/kg) and prazosin (0.25 mg/kg). Vagal stimulation caused an immediate decrease in LOS pressure, followed by increase on cessation of stimulation, followed by a prolonged decrease (77 +/- 2%) for up to 5 min. L-NAME did not affect inhibition, but increased excitation 4-fold (p < 0.001). Guanethidine and CP96,345 had no major effect. Hexamethonium decreased the inhibitory (p < 0.05) and excitatory (p < 0.01) responses. Atropine reduced the excitatory response (p < 0.05). Some inhibition still remained if all treatments were combined. Splanchnic stimulation reduced LOS pressure by 70 +/- 6% for 101 +/- 17 s. L-NAME, guanethidine, hexamethonium and CP96,345 all independently significantly reduced inhibition. The combination of guanethidine and CP96,345 usually abolished splanchnic-induced inhibition. Atropine was without effect. Propranolol (1 mg/kg) changed the splanchnic-induced response from mainly inhibition to excitation (100 +/- 44% increase). LOS responses to noradrenaline (1-10 micrograms close IA) showed similar features to responses to splanchnic stimulation. We conclude that vagal stimulation evokes LOS relaxation via activation of established cholinergic and NANC mechanisms and other, unidentified mechanisms. Splanchnic stimulation activates adrenergic neurones probably via nicotinic and non-nicotinic ganglionic mechanisms, which in turn elicit beta adrenergic inhibitory effects on the LOS. Splanchnic stimulation also antidromically activates spinal afferent fibres. These may release substance P from peripheral myenteric plexus and prevertebral ganglionic endings causing activation of myenteric NANC inhibitory neurones and sympathetic neurones, respectively.|
|Keywords:||Vagus nerve; Splanchnic nerve; Sphincter; Tachykinin receptors|
|Rights:||© 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Aurora harvest|
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