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Type: Journal article
Title: Potential grape-derived contributions to volatile ester concentrations in wine
Author: Boss, P.
Pearce, A.
Zhao, Y.
Nicholson, E.
Dennis, E.
Jeffery, D.
Citation: Molecules, 2015; 20(5):7845-7873
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2015
ISSN: 1420-3049
Statement of
Paul K. Boss, Anthony D. Pearce, Yanjia Zhao, Emily L. Nicholson, Eric G. Dennis, and David W. Jeffery
Abstract: Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L-1 β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L-1 β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L-1 required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.
Keywords: Vitis; Acetates; Esters; Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; Amino Acids; beta-Alanine; Flavoring Agents; Fermentation; Wine; Volatile Organic Compounds
Rights: © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (
RMID: 0030028305
DOI: 10.3390/molecules20057845
Appears in Collections:Agriculture, Food and Wine publications

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