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Type: Journal article
Title: Epigenetics and human obesity
Author: Van Dijk, S.
Molloy, P.
Varinli, H.
Morrison, J.
Muhlhausler, B.
Buckley, M.
Clark, S.
McMillen, I.
Noakes, M.
Samaras, K.
Tellam, R.
Citation: International Journal of Obesity, 2015; 39(1):85-97
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Issue Date: 2015
ISSN: 0307-0565
Statement of
S J van Dijk, P L Molloy, H Varinli, J L Morrison, B S Muhlhausler, and members of EpiSCOPE
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recent technological advances in epigenome profiling have led to an increasing number of studies investigating the role of the epigenome in obesity. There is also evidence that environmental exposures during early life can induce persistent alterations in the epigenome, which may lead to an increased risk of obesity later in life. METHOD: This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the association between obesity and either global, site-specific or genome-wide methylation of DNA. Studies on the impact of pre- and postnatal interventions on methylation and obesity are also reviewed. We discuss outstanding questions, and introduce EpiSCOPE, a multidisciplinary research program aimed at increasing the understanding of epigenetic changes in emergence of obesity. RESULTS: An electronic search for relevant articles, published between September 2008 and September 2013 was performed. From the 319 articles identified, 46 studies were included and reviewed. The studies provided no consistent evidence for a relationship between global methylation and obesity. The studies did identify multiple obesity-associated differentially methylated sites, mainly in blood cells. Extensive, but small, alterations in methylation at specific sites were observed in weight loss intervention studies, and several associations between methylation marks at birth and later life obesity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, significant progress has been made in the field of epigenetics and obesity and the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that could be detected at birth have been identified. Eventually this may help in predicting an individual's obesity risk at a young age and opens possibilities for introducing targeted prevention strategies. It has also become clear that several epigenetic marks are modifiable, by changing the exposure in utero, but also by lifestyle changes in adult life, which implies that there is the potential for interventions to be introduced in postnatal life to modify unfavourable epigenomic profiles.
Keywords: epigenetics; DNA methylation; adipose tissue; developmental programming
Rights: © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
RMID: 0030016872
DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2014.34
Appears in Collections:Agriculture, Food and Wine publications

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