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|Title:||The effect of soil properties on the toxicity of silver to the soil nitrification process|
|Citation:||Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2014; 33(5):1170-1178|
|Kate A. Langdon, Mike J. Mclaughlin, Jason K. Kirby, and Graham Merrington|
|Abstract:||Silver (Ag) is being increasingly used in a range of consumer products, predominantly as an antimicrobial agent, leading to a higher likelihood of its release into the environment. The present study investigated the toxicity of Ag to the nitrification process in European and Australian soils in both leached and unleached conditions. Overall, leaching of soils was found to have a minimal effect on the final toxicity data, with an average leaching factor of approximately 1. Across the soils, the toxicity was found to vary by several orders of magnitude, with concentrations of Ag causing a 50% reduction in nitrification relative to the controls (EC50) ranging from 0.43 mg Ag/kg to >640 mg Ag/kg. Interestingly, the dose-response relationships in most of the soils showed significant stimulation in nitrification at low Ag concentrations (i.e., hormesis), which in some cases produced responses up to double that observed in the controls. Soil pH and organic carbon were the properties found to have the greatest influence on the variations in toxicity thresholds across the soils, and significant relationships were developed that accounted for approximately 90% of the variability in the data. The toxicity relationships developed from the present study will assist in future assessment of potential Ag risks and enable the site-specific prediction of Ag toxicity.|
|Keywords:||Silver; Soil; Soil Pollutants; Anti-Infective Agents; Nitrification; Australia|
|Rights:||© 2014 SETAC|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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