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Type: Journal article
Title: Gestational dietary protein is associated with sex specific decrease in blood flow, fetal heart growth and post-natal blood pressure of progeny
Author: Hernandez-Medrano, J.
Copping, K.
Hoare, A.
Wapanaar, W.
Grivell, R.
Kuchel, T.
Miguel-Pacheco, G.
McMillen, I.
Rodgers, R.
Perry, V.
Citation: PLoS One, 2015; 10(4):e0125694-1-e0125694-17
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Issue Date: 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Statement of
Juan H. Hernandez-Medrano, Katrina J. Copping, Andrew Hoare, Wendela Wapanaar, Rosalie Grivell, Tim Kuchel, Giuliana Miguel-Pacheco, I. Caroline McMillen, Raymond J. Rodgers, Viv E. A. Perry
Abstract: STUDY OVERVIEW: The incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes is higher in pregnancies where the fetus is male. Sex specific differences in feto-placental perfusion indices identified by Doppler assessment have recently been associated with placental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. This study aims to investigate sex specific differences in placental perfusion and to correlate these changes with fetal growth. It represents the largest comprehensive study under field conditions of uterine hemodynamics in a monotocous species, with a similar long gestation period to the human. Primiparous 14mo heifers in Australia (n=360) and UK (n=180) were either individually or group fed, respectively, diets with differing protein content (18, 14, 10 or 7% crude protein (CP)) from 60d prior to 98 days post conception (dpc). Fetuses and placentae were excised at 98dpc (n = 48). Fetal development an median uterine artery blood flow were assessed monthly from 36dpc until term using B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography. MUA blood flow to the male feto-placental unit increased in early pregnancy associated with increased fetal growth. Protein restriction before and shortly after conception (-60d up to 23dpc) increased MUA diameter and indices of velocity during late pregnancy, reduced fetal heart weight in the female fetus and increased heart rate at birth, but decreased systolic blood pressure at six months of age. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Sex specific differences both in feto-placental Doppler perfusion indices and response of these indices to dietary perturbations were observed. Further, maternal diet affected development of fetal cardiovascular system associated with altered fetal haemodynamics in utero, with such effects having a sex bias. The results from this study provide further insight into the gender specific circulatory differences present in the fetal period and developing cardiovascular system.
Keywords: Heart; Placenta; Animals; Cattle; Dietary Proteins; Blood Flow Velocity; Fetal Development; Pregnancy; Sex Characteristics; Blood Pressure; Cerebrovascular Circulation; Australia; Female; Male; Uterine Artery; United Kingdom
Rights: © 2015 Hernandez-Medrano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
RMID: 0030028190
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125694
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Appears in Collections:Paediatrics publications

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