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Type: Journal article
Title: Are the dietary guidelines for meat, fat, fruit and vegetable consumption appropriate for environmental sustainability? A review of the literature
Author: Reynolds, C.
Buckley, J.
Weinstein, P.
Boland, J.
Citation: Nutrients, 2014; 6(6):2251-2265
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2014
ISSN: 2072-6643
Statement of
Christian John Reynolds, Jonathan David Buckley, Philip Weinstein and John Boland
Abstract: This paper reviews the current literature around the environmental impacts of dietary recommendations. The focus of the review is on collating evidence relating to environmental impacts of the dietary advice found in the World Health Organisation guidelines, and environmental impact literature: reducing the consumption of fat, reducing the consumption of meat-based protein and animal-based foods, and increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The environmental impact of reducing dietary fat intake is unclear, although reducing consumption of the food category of edible fats and oils appears to have little impact. However most, but not all, studies support environmental benefits of a reduced consumption of animal-based foods and increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. In general, it appears that adhering to dietary guidelines reduces impact on the environment, but further study is required to examine the environmental impacts of animal-based foods, and fruit and vegetable intake in depth.
Keywords: environmental impact; diet; food; red meat; animal protein; fat; fruit; vegetables
Rights: © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (
RMID: 0030024644
DOI: 10.3390/nu6062251
Appears in Collections:Public Health publications

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