Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Scopus Web of Science® Altmetric
Type: Journal article
Title: Prevalence and risk factor analysis of lower extremity abnormal alignment characteristics among rice farmers
Author: Karukunchit, U.
Puntumetakul, R.
Swangnetr, M.
Boucaut, R.
Citation: Patient Preference and Adherence, 2015; 9:785-795
Publisher: Dove Press
Issue Date: 2015
ISSN: 1177-889X
Statement of
Usa Karukunchit, Rungthip Puntumetakul, Manida Swangnetr, Rose Boucaut
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Rice farming activities involve prolonged manual work and human-machine interaction. Prolonged farming risk-exposure may result in lower limb malalignment. This malalignment may increase the risk of lower extremity injury and physical disabilities. However, the prevalence and factors associated with lower extremity malalignment have not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of lower extremity malalignment among rice farmers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 249 rice farmers. Lower extremity alignment assessment included: pelvic tilt angle, limb length equality, femoral torsion, quadriceps (Q) angle, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, rearfoot angle, and medial longitudinal arch angle. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze participant characteristics and prevalence of lower extremity malalignment. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors. RESULTS: The highest prevalence of lower extremity malalignment was foot pronation (36.14%), followed by the abnormal Q angle (34.94%), tibiofemoral angle (31.73%), pelvic tilt angle (30.52%), femoral antetorsion (28.11%), limb length inequality (22.49%), tibial torsion (21.29%), and genu recurvatum (11.24%). In females, the risk factors were abnormal Q angle, tibiofemoral angle, and genu recurvatum. Being overweight was a risk factor for abnormal pelvic tilt angle, Q angle, and tibiofemoral angle. Age was a risk factor for limb length inequality. Years of farming were a major risk factor for abnormal Q angle, tibiofemoral angle, and foot malalignment. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of lower extremity malalignment was reported in this study. Female sex, being overweight, and years of farming were major risk factors for lower extremity malalignment. Lower extremity screening should assist in the identification of foot and knee malalignment in rice farmers. This may then lead to early prevention of musculoskeletal disorders arising from such malalignment.
Keywords: lower extremity malalignment
rice farmer
risk factors
Rights: © 2015 Karukunchit et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at:
DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S81898
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest 7
Nursing publications

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
hdl_93380.pdfPublished version1.69 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.