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|Title:||Corticospinal contributions to lower limb muscle activity during cycling in humans|
|Citation:||Journal of Neurophysiology, 2012; 107(1):306-314|
|Publisher:||American Physiological Society|
|Simranjit K. Sidhu, Ben W. Hoffman, Andrew G. Cresswell, and Timothy J. Carroll|
|Abstract:||The purpose of the current study was to investigate corticospinal contributions to locomotor drive to leg muscles involved in cycling. We studied 1) if activation of inhibitory interneurons in the cortex via subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) caused a suppression of EMG and 2) how the responses to stimulation of the motor cortex via TMS and cervicomedullary stimulation (CMS) were modulated across the locomotor cycle. TMS at intensities subthreshold for activation of the corticospinal tract elicited suppression of EMG for approximately one-half of the subjects and muscles during cycling, and in matched static contractions in vastus lateralis. There was also significant modulation in the size of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by TMS across the locomotor cycle (P < 0.001) that was strongly related to variation in background EMG in all muscles (r > 0.86; P < 0.05). When MEP and CMEP amplitudes were normalized to background EMG, they were relatively larger prior to the main EMG burst and smaller when background EMG was maximum. Since the pattern of modulation of normalized MEP and CMEP responses was similar, the data suggest that phase-dependent modulation of corticospinal responses during cycling in humans is driven mainly by spinal mechanisms. However, there were subtle differences in the degree to which normalized MEP and CMEP responses were facilitated prior to EMG burst, which might reflect small increases in cortical excitability prior to maximum muscle activation. The data demonstrate that the motor cortex contributes actively to locomotor drive, and that spinal factors dominate phase-dependent modulation of corticospinal excitability during cycling in humans.|
|Keywords:||transcranial magnetic stimulation; knee extensors; electromyography|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2012 the American Physiological Society|
|Appears in Collections:||Medicine publications|
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