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|Title:||Shiraz wines made from grape berries (vitis vinifera) delayed in ripening by plant growth regulator treatment have elevated rotundone concentrations and "pepper" flavor and aroma|
|Citation:||Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2015; 63(8):2137-2144|
|Publisher:||American Chemical Society|
|Christopher Davies, Emily L. Nicholson, Christine Böttcher, Crista A. Burbidge, Susan E.P. Bastian, Katie E. Harvey, An-Cheng Huang, Dennis K. Taylor, and Paul K. Boss|
|Abstract:||Preveraison treatment of Shiraz berries with either 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Ethrel delayed the onset of ripening and harvest. NAA was more effective than Ethrel, delaying harvest by 23 days, compared to 6 days for Ethrel. Sensory analysis of wines from NAA-treated fruit showed significant differences in 10 attributes, including higher "pepper" flavor and aroma compared to those of the control wines. A nontargeted analysis of headspace volatiles revealed modest differences between wines made from control and NAA- or Ethrel-treated berries. However, the concentration of rotundone, the metabolite responsible for the pepper character, was below the level of detection by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in control wines, low in Ethrel wines (2 ng/L), and much higher in NAA wines (29 ng/L). Thus, NAA, and to a lesser extent Ethrel, treatment of grapes during the preveraison period can delay ripening and enhance rotundone concentrations in Shiraz fruit, thereby enhancing wine "peppery" attributes.|
|Keywords:||Berry ripening; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid; Ethrel; wine; aroma; flavour; rotundone|
|Rights:||© 2015 American Chemical Society|
|Appears in Collections:||Agriculture, Food and Wine publications|
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