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Type: Journal article
Title: Cetacean Morbillivirus: current knowledge and future directions
Author: Van Bressem, M.
Duignan, P.
Banyard, A.
Barbieri, M.
Colegrove, K.
De Guise, S.
Di Guardo, G.
Dobson, A.
Domingo, M.
Fauquier, D.
Fernandez, A.
Goldstein, T.
Grenfell, B.
Groch, K.
Gulland, F.
Jensen, B.
Jepson, P.
Hall, A.
Kuiken, T.
Mazzariol, S.
et al.
Citation: Viruses, 2014; 6(12):5145-5181
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2014
ISSN: 1999-4915
Statement of
Marie-Françoise Van Bressem ... Ikuko Tomo ... et al.
Abstract: We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Although most CeMV strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), from Western Australia, and a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), from Brazil, are divergent. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in cetaceans. It shares higher amino acid identity with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, reflecting the evolutionary history of these mammalian taxa. In Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may result in a higher affinity for the virus. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute disease may develop fatal secondary infections and chronic encephalitis. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes probably serve as reservoirs and vectors. Transmission likely occurs through the inhalation of aerosolized virus but mother to fetus transmission was also reported.
Keywords: cetacean morbillivirus; epidemics; mass stranding; SLAM; phylogeny; pathogenesis; diagnosis; endemic infections
Rights: © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (
RMID: 0030024077
DOI: 10.3390/v6125145
Appears in Collections:Dentistry publications

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