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Type: Journal article
Title: Modern diet and metabolic variance - a recipe for disaster?
Author: Grantham, J.
Staub, K.
Ruehli, F.
Henneberg, M.
Citation: Nutrition Journal, 2014; 13(1):15-1-15-10
Publisher: BioMed Central
Issue Date: 2014
ISSN: 1475-2891
Statement of
James P Grantham, Kaspar Staub, Frank J Rühli, and Maciej Henneberg
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Recently, a positive correlation between alanine transaminase activity and body mass was established among healthy young individuals of normal weight. Here we explore further this relationship and propose a physiological rationale for this link. DESIGN: Cross-sectional statistical analysis of adiposity across large samples of adults differing by age, diet and lifestyle. SUBJECTS: 46,684 19-20 years old Swiss male conscripts and published data on 1000 Eskimos, 518 Toronto residents and 97,000 North American Adventists. MEASUREMENTS: Serum concentrations of the alanine transaminase, post-prandial glucose levels, cholesterol, body height and weight, blood pressure and routine blood analysis (thrombocytes and leukocytes) for Swiss conscripts. Adiposity measures and dietary information for other groups were also obtained. RESULTS: Stepwise multiple regression after correction for random errors of physiological tests showed that 28% of the total variance in body mass is associated with ALT concentrations. This relationship remained significant when only metabolically healthy (as defined by the American Heart Association) Swiss conscripts were selected. The data indicated that high protein only or high carbohydrate only diets are associated with lower levels of obesity than a diet combining proteins and carbohydrates. CONCLUSION: Elevated levels of alanine transaminase, and likely other transaminases, may result in overactivity of the alanine cycle that produces pyruvate from protein. When a mixed meal of protein, carbohydrate and fat is consumed, carbohydrates and fats are digested faster and metabolised to satisfy body's energetic needs while slower digested protein is ultimately converted to malonyl CoA and stored as fat. Chronicity of this sequence is proposed to cause accumulation of somatic fat stores and thus obesity.
Keywords: Humans; Obesity; Alanine Transaminase; Blood Glucose; Body Mass Index; Diet; Cross-Sectional Studies; Feeding Behavior; Energy Metabolism; Postprandial Period; Adult; Inuits; Male; Adiposity
Rights: © Grantham et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014 This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​2.​0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://​creativecommons.​org/​publicdomain/​zero/​1.​0/​) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
RMID: 0030011425
DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-15
Appears in Collections:Medicine publications

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