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Type: Journal article
Title: Glycemic index, glycemic load, and common psychological disorders
Author: Haghighatdoost, F.
Azadbakht, L.
Keshteli, A.
Feinle-Bisset, C.
Daghaghzadeh, H.
Afshar, H.
Feizi, A.
Esmaillzadeh, A.
Adibi, P.
Citation: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016; 103(1):201-209
Publisher: American Society for Nutrition
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 0002-9165
Statement of
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Leila Azadbakht, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Hamed Daghaghzadeh, Hamid Afshar, Awat Feizi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, and Peyman Adibi
Abstract: Background: Potential associations between dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with psychological disorders remain uncertain. Objective: We investigated the relations of dietary GI and GL with psychological distress, anxiety, and depression. Design: A total of 3363 nonacademic members of the staff of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were included in this cross-sectional study. GI and GL were assessed by using a validated, self-administered, dish-based, semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Validated Iranian versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and General Health Questionnaire-12 were used to assess anxiety, depression, and psychological distress. Results: After control for potential confounders, individuals in the top tertile of GI had greater odds of depression (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.02; P-trend = 0.03) and a trend for greater odds of anxiety (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 0.97, 2.38; P trend = 0.06) compared with those in the first tertile. Higher GL values were linked to lower odds for mental disorders (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.90; P-trend = 0.009), depression (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.93; P-trend = 0.02), and psychological distress (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P-trend = 0.01). Significant interactions were observed between GI and sex for depression (P = 0.01) and psychological distress (P = 0.046) in the crude model. In stratified analyses by sex, after control for potential confounders, a greater GI was linked to a higher odds of depression (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.94; P-trend = 0.001) and psychological distress (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.14; P-trend = 0.001) in women but not in men. Conclusion: Our findings support a direct link between the odds of depression and dietary GI but inverse associations between GL and mental disorders, depression, and psychological distress. This trial was registered at as NCT02362113.
Keywords: anxiety; depression; glycemic index; glycemic load; psychological distress
Description: First published November 25, 2015
Rights: © 2016 American Society for Nutrition
DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.114.105445
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