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|Title:||Host-microbe cross talk in cancer therapy|
|Citation:||Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care, 2015; 9(2):174-181|
|Publisher:||Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins|
|Vanhoecke, Barbara, Stringer, Andrea|
|Abstract:||Purpose of review: Microbiota secrete a multitude of factors that either confer virulence or promote colonization because they are continuously challenged by host immune responses. The dynamic interplay between the host's immune response and microbiota eventually determines the outcome for the host: health or disease. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in this interplay as they can recognize both microbial and host-derived ligands on the basis of the context in which recognition occurs. Recent findings: Evidence is accumulating that conventional cancer therapies alter interactions and cross talks between the host and microbiota. This has been shown for intestinal mucositis, a common side-effect of various cancer therapies. Advances have been made in the development of new and less toxic cancer strategies. One promising field is immunotherapy on the basis of TLR activation through recognition of microbial-associated molecular patterns. Summary: Evidence is emerging, indicating that existing cancer therapies have implications on the composition and functionality of the host-microbiota environment. This may favor the colonization of pathogens and build up the overall toxicity of the drug. Exploitation of the host-microbiota cross talks mediated by TLRs is an emerging and promising field in the search for new, less toxic anticancer strategies.|
|Keywords:||Cancer therapy; host; microbiota; mucositis; Toll-like receptor|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.|
|Appears in Collections:||Medicine publications|
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