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Type: Journal article
Title: Identification and characterization of VNI/VNII and novel VNII/VNIV hybrids and impact of hybridization on virulence and antifungal susceptibility within the C-neoformans/C-gattii species complex
Author: Aminnejad, M.
Cogliati, M.
Duan, S.
Arabatzis, M.
Tintelnot, K.
Castaneda, E.
Lazera, M.
Velegraki, A.
Ellis, D.
Sorrell, T.
Meyer, W.
Citation: PLoS One, 2016; 11(10):e0163955-1-e0163955-28
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Issue Date: 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Editor: Nielsen, K.
Statement of
Mojgan Aminnejad, Massimo Cogliati, Shuyao Duan, Michael Arabatzis, Kathrin Tintelnot, Elizabeth Castañeda, Marcia LazeÂra, Aristea Velegraki, David Ellis, Tania C. Sorrell, Wieland Meyer
Abstract: Preterm infants start milk feeds by gavage tube. As they mature, sucking feeds are gradually introduced. Women who choose to breast feed their preterm infant are not always able to be in hospital with their baby and need an alternative approach to feeding. Most commonly, milk (expressed breast milk or formula) is given by bottle. Whether using bottles during establishment of breast feeds is detrimental to breast feeding success is a topic Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic basidiomycetous yeasts and the commonest cause of fungal infection of the central nervous system. Cryptococci are typically haploid but several inter-species, inter-varietal and intra-varietal hybrids have been reported. It has a bipolar mating system with sexual reproduction occurring normally between two individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. This study set out to characterize hybrid isolates within the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex: seven unisexual mating intra-varietal VNI/VNII (αAAα) and six novel inter-varietal VNII/VNIV (aADα). The URA5-RFLP pattern for VNII/VNIV (aADα) differs from the VNIII (αADa) hybrids. Analysis of the allelic patterns of selected genes for AD hybrids showed 79% or more heterozygosis for the studied loci except for CBS132 (VNIII), which showed 50% of heterozygosity. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to hybrids belonging to different sero/mating type allelic patterns. All hybrid isolates were identified as belonging to the same hybrid group with identification scores ranging between 2.101 to 2.634. All hybrids were virulent when tested in the Galleria mellonella (wax moth) model, except for VNII/VNIV (aADα) hybrids. VNI/VGII hybrids were the most virulent hybrids. Hybrids recovered from larvae manifested a significant increase in capsule and total cell size and produced a low proportion (5–10%) of giant cells compared with the haploid control strains. All strains expressed the major virulence factors—capsule, melanin and phospholipase B—and grew well at 37°C. The minimal inhibitory concentration of nine drugs was measured by micro-broth dilution and compared with published data on haploid strains. MICs were similar amongst hybrids and haploid parental strains. This is the first study reporting natural same sex αAAα intra-varietal VNI/VNII hybrids and aADα inter-varietal VNII/VNIV hybrids.
Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans
Fungal Proteins
Virulence Factors
Antifungal Agents
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Mycological Typing Techniques
Hybridization, Genetic
Genes, Mating Type, Fungal
Cryptococcus gattii
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Rights: © 2016 Aminnejad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163955
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Molecular and Biomedical Science publications

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