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|Title:||Current understanding of cancer stem cells: review of their radiobiology and role in head and neck cancers|
|Citation:||Head and Neck: journal for the sciences and specialities of the head and neck, 2017; 39(9):1920-1932|
|Paul Ambrose Reid, Puthenparampil Wilson, Yanrui Li, Loredana Gabriela Marcu, Eva Bezak|
|Abstract:||Evidence of cancer cells that bear attributes analogous to those of normal stem cells has developed a hierarchical model of cancer's architecture and progression. This subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs) drives the progression and therapy resistance of cancers. Research to identify the phenotypes of these CSCs presents evidence of a subpopulation that is more resistant to therapy and may proliferate in response. Literature shows that CSCs typically represent around 1%-10% of cell populations in head and neck cancer but this proportion may increase in response to a therapeutic radiation dose. This is shown to be not just as a result of preferential killing, but also their capacity to alter divisional dynamics and enlist the support of a complicit microenvironment in therapy resistance and proliferation. The CSCs represent the apex of a hierarchy in the heterogeneity of cancer cells and may be seen as the agents of treatment failure, metastasis, and tumor recurrence, the principal cause of mortality in head and neck cancers. Greater than 90% of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), and among these an increasing incidence of the involvement of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is reported. Chemoradiotherapy along with surgical resection are the interventions of choice for control and cure of HNSCC, but given CSCs therapy resistance and proliferative responses to radiation, the identification and understanding of the radiobiology of this subpopulation is critical to their targeted elimination. This article reviews the current evidence on CSC generally and in HNSCC specifically to identify their phenotype, evaluate their responses to radiotherapy, and evaluate the defensive mechanisms used to resist therapeutic control.|
|Keywords:||Cancer stem cells; head and neck cancer; radiobiology; radioresistance; squamous cell carcinoma|
|Rights:||© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. wileyonlinelibrary.com|
|Appears in Collections:||Aurora harvest 3|
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