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Type: Journal article
Title: Mainstreaming gender into irrigation: experiences from Pakistan
Author: Memon, J.A.
Cooper, B.
Wheeler, S.
Citation: Water: an open access journal, 2019; 11(11):2408-1-2408-22
Publisher: MDPI
Issue Date: 2019
ISSN: 2073-4441
Statement of
Junaid Alam Memon, Bethany Cooper and Sarah Wheeler
Abstract: The influence of gender in participatory irrigation management reforms has been the subject of significant research in the past. Whilst there is some understanding of what hinders women and marginalized groups from participating in irrigation management, there is limited understanding of how male and female farmers vary in their perceptions on the effectiveness of participation in irrigation affairs. There is also limited understanding around the interaction on gender and the overall success of participatory irrigation management programs. Based on the information obtained from 128 households surveyed through separate male and female questionnaires in Pakistan in 2018 (Sindh and Punjab provinces), we studied the country’s experience in engaging gender into its participatory irrigation management program. We found there was a significant difference in participatory irrigation management perceptions across both gender and locational jurisdiction. Overall, women generally perceive the performance and impact of farmer organizations to be significantly less effective than men. Our study emphasizes the importance of putting findings in a historical context to inform the theory, policy, and practice of mainstreaming gender into irrigation management.
Keywords: Gender analysis; inclusion; participatory irrigation management; farmer organizations; water user associations; Indus Basin irrigation system; irrigation and drainage authority
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
DOI: 10.3390/w11112408
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