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|Title:||A review of biological indicators of illicit drug use, practical considerations and clinical usefulness.|
|Citation:||Addiction, 1999; 94(9):1279-1298|
|K. Wolff, M. Farrell, J. Marsden, M. G. Monteiro, R. Ali, S. Welch, J. Strang|
|Abstract:||AIMS:To examine a range of biological indicators of illicit drug use, including blood, urine, hair and saliva, addressing both technological and practical issues relating to their application and interpretation. METHODS:The review process involved an examination of key reference texts and literature from the scientific fields of analytical and clinical toxicology. FINDINGS:Urine remains the biological tool of choice for qualitative detection of illicit drug use in a clinical setting, while quantitative accuracy remains strictly the domain of blood. The growing sophistication of laboratory analysis may additionally make possible the routine use of hair sampling which can provide a much longer time frame for assessment. Breath, saliva, sweat or breast milk remain possibilities in the future. CONCLUSIONS:Accurate interpretation of the screening tests within a clinical setting alongside other relevant information remains the key to the usefulness of any test.|
|Keywords:||Humans; Substance-Related Disorders; Health Status Indicators; Substance Abuse Detection; Biomarkers|
|Appears in Collections:||Pharmacology publications|
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