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Type: Journal article
Title: An increase in dietary carotenoids when consuming plant sterols or stanols is effective in maintaining plasma carotenoid concentrations
Author: Noakes, M.
Clifton, P.
Ntanios, F.
Schrapnel, W.
Record, I.
McInerney, J.
Citation: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2002; 75(1):79-86
Publisher: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition
Issue Date: 2002
ISSN: 0002-9165
Statement of
Manny Noakes, Peter Clifton, Fady Ntanios, William Shrapnel, Ian Record, and Jenny McInerney
Abstract: <h4>Background</h4>Plant-sterol-enriched spreads lower LDL cholesterol but may also lower lipid-standardized carotenoids.<h4>Objective</h4>Our objective was to assess whether advice to consume specific daily amounts of foods high in carotenoids prevents a reduction in plasma carotenoid concentrations in subjects who consume plant sterol or stanol esters.<h4>Design</h4>Forty-six hypercholesterolemic free-living subjects completed a 3-way, double-blind, randomized crossover comparison. Subjects consumed each of the following 3 spreads (25 g/d) for 3 wk: control-1 (sterol-free), sterol ester-1 (2.3 g plant sterol esters), and stanol ester-1 (2.5 g plant stanol esters). During the 3-wk interventions, subjects were advised to eat > or =5 servings of vegetables and fruit/d, of which > or =1 serving was to be carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, tomatoes, apricots, spinach, or broccoli.<h4>Results</h4>The dietary advice resulted in a 13% increase in plasma beta-carotene in subjects who consumed control-1 (P = 0.04). The plasma beta-carotene concentrations of subjects who consumed control-1 did not differ significantly from those of subjects who consumed stanol ester-1 or sterol ester-1. This result was achieved by an increase of one daily serving of high-carotenoid vegetables or fruit. LDL cholesterol decreased 7.7% and 9.5% after consumption of sterol ester-1 and stanol ester-1, respectively (P < 0.001 for both), and differences between the LDL-cholesterol values obtained were not significant.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Dietary advice to consume an additional daily serving of a high-carotenoid vegetable or fruit when consuming spreads containing sterol or stanol esters maintains plasma carotenoid concentrations while lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations significantly.
Keywords: Humans
Dietary Fats
Body Mass Index
Analysis of Variance
Cross-Over Studies
Double-Blind Method
Middle Aged
Cholesterol, LDL
DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/75.1.79
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