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Type: Journal article
Title: War-related psychological stressors and risk of psychological disorders in Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War
Author: Ikin, J.
Sim, M.
Creamer, M.
Forbes, A.
McKenzie, D.
Kelsall, H.
Glass, D.
McFarlane, A.
Abramson, M.
Ittak, P.
Dwyer, T.
Blizzard, L.
Delaney, K.
Horsley, K.
Harrex, W.
Schwarz, H.
Citation: British Journal of Psychiatry, 2004; 185(AUG.):116-126
Publisher: Royal College of Psychiatrists
Issue Date: 2004
ISSN: 0007-1250
Statement of
J. F. Ikin, M. R. Sim, M. C. Creamer, A. B. Forbes, D. P. Mckenzie, H. L. Kelsall, D. C. Glass, A. C. McFarlane, M. J. Abramson, P. Ittak, T. Dwyer, L. Blizzard, K. R. Delaney, K.W. A. Horsley, W. K. Harrex and H. Schwarz
Abstract: Background Questions remain about the long-term health impacts of the 1991 Gulf War on its veterans. Aims To measure psychological disorders in Australian Gulf War veterans and a military comparison group and to explore any association with exposure to Gulf War-related psychological stressors. Method Prevalences of DSM-IV psychological disorders were measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Gulf War-related psychological stressors were measured using a service experience questionnaire. Results A total of 31% of male Gulf War veterans and 21% of the comparison group met criteria for a DSM-IV disorder first present in the post-Gulf War period. The veterans were at greater risk of developing post-Gulf War anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder, affective disorders and substance use disorders. The prevalence of such disorders remained elevated a decade after deployment. The findings can be explained partly as a ‘war-deployment effect’. There was a strong dose-response relationship between psychological disorders and number of reported Gulf War-related psychological stressors. Conclusions Service in the 1991 Gulf War is associated with increased risk of psychological disorders and these are related to stressful experiences.
Keywords: Humans
Persian Gulf Syndrome
Substance-Related Disorders
Odds Ratio
Risk Factors
Stress, Psychological
Combat Disorders
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
Mood Disorders
Middle Aged
Military Personnel
Description: Copyright © 2004 The Royal College of Psychiatrists
DOI: 10.1192/bjp.185.2.116
Published version:
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Psychiatry publications

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