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Type: Journal article
Title: Effect of bottles, cups, and dummies on breast feeding in preterm infants: randomised controlled trial
Author: Collins, C.
Ryan, P.
Crowther, C.
McPhee, A.
Paterson, S.
Hiller, J.
Citation: BMJ: British Medical Journal, 2004; 329(7459):193-196
Publisher: British Med Journal Publ Group
Issue Date: 2004
ISSN: 0959-535X
Statement of
Carmel T Collins, Philip Ryan, Caroline A Crowther, Andrew J McPhee, Susan Paterson, Janet E Hiller
Abstract: Objective: To determine the effect of artificial teats (bottle and dummy) and cups on breast feeding in preterm infants. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Two large tertiary hospitals, 54 peripheral hospitals. Participants 319 preterm infants (born at 23-33 weeks’ gestation) randomly assigned to one of four groups: cup/no dummy (n = 89), cup/dummy (n = 72), bottle/no dummy (n = 73), bottle/dummy (n = 85).Women with singleton or twin infants < 34 weeks’ gestation who wanted to breastfeed were eligible to participate. Interventions: Cup or bottle feeding occurred when the mother was unable to be present to breast feed. Infants randomised to the dummy groups received a dummy on entry into the trial. Main outcome measures: Full breast feeding (compared with partial and none) and any breast feeding (compared with none) on discharge home. Secondary outcomes: prevalence of breast feeding at three and six months after discharge and length of hospital stay. Results: 303 infants (and 278 mothers) were included in the intention to treat analysis. There were no significant differences for any of the study outcomes according to use of a dummy. Infants randomised to cup feeds were more likely to be fully breast fed on discharge home (odds ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 2.88, P = 0.03), but had a longer length of stay (hazard ratio 0.71, 0.55 to 0.92, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Dummies do not affect breast feeding in preterm infants. Cup feeding significantly increases the likelihood that the baby will be fully breast fed at discharge home, but has no effect on any breast feeding and increases the length of hospital stay.
Keywords: Humans
Bottle Feeding
Length of Stay
Infant Equipment
Treatment Refusal
Breast Feeding
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Description: The original publication may be found at
Rights: © BMJ Publishing Group
DOI: 10.1136/bmj.38131.675914.55
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