Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/57815
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Type: Journal article
Title: Long-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate diet and a low-fat diet on mood and cognitive function
Author: Brinkworth, G.
Buckley, J.
Noakes, M.
Clifton, P.
Wilson, C.
Citation: Archives of Internal Medicine, 2009; 169(20):1873-1880
Publisher: Amer Medical Assoc
Issue Date: 2009
ISSN: 0003-9926
1538-3679
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Grant D. Brinkworth, Jonathan D. Buckley, Manny Noakes, Peter M. Clifton and Carlene J. Wilson
Abstract: Background: Very low-carbohydrate (LC) diets are often used to promote weight loss, but the long-term effects on psychological function remain unknown. Methods: A total of 106 overweight and obese participants (mean [SE] age, 50.0 [0.8] years; mean [SE] body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], 33.7 [0.4]) were randomly assigned either to an energy-restricted (approximately 1433-1672 kcal [to convert to kilojoules, multiply by 4.186]), planned isocaloric, very low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC) diet or to a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (LF) diet for 1 year. Changes in body weight, psychological mood and well-being (Profile of Mood States, Beck Depression Inventory, and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory scores), and cognitive functioning (working memory and speed of processing) were assessed. Results: By 1 year, the overall mean (SE) weight loss was 13.7 (1.8) kg, with no significant difference between groups (P =.26). Over the course of the study, there were significant time x diet interactions for Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Profile of Mood States scores for total mood disturbance, anger-hostility, confusion-bewilderment, and depression-dejection (P<.05) as a result of greater improvements in these psychological mood states for the LF diet compared with the LC diet. Working memory improved by 1 year (P<.001 for time), but speed of processing remained largely unchanged, with no effect of diet composition on either cognitive domain. Conclusions: Over 1 year, there was a favorable effect of an energy-restricted LF diet compared with an isocaloric LC diet on mood state and affect in overweight and obese individuals. Both diets had similar effects on working memory and speed of processing.
Keywords: Humans; Obesity; Weight Loss; Body Mass Index; Treatment Outcome; Diet, Fat-Restricted; Multivariate Analysis; Probability; Risk Assessment; Follow-Up Studies; Affect; Cognition; Cognition Disorders; Mood Disorders; Energy Intake; Adult; Middle Aged; Patient Satisfaction; Female; Male; Body Fat Distribution; Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted; Young Adult
RMID: 0020093358
DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.329
Appears in Collections:Molecular and Biomedical Science publications

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