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Type: Journal article
Title: Determinants of mortality in non-neutropenic ICU patients with candidaemia
Author: Marriott, D.
Playford, E.
Chen, S.
Slavin, M.
Nguyen, Q.
Ellis, D.
Sorrell, T.
Citation: Critical Care (Print Edition), 2009; 13(4):R115-R122
Publisher: Current Science Inc.
Issue Date: 2009
ISSN: 1364-8535
Statement of
Deborah J.E. Marriott, E. Geoffrey Playford, Sharon Chen, Monica Slavin, Quoc Nguyen, David Ellis and Tania C. Sorrell for the Australian Candidaemia Study
Abstract: Introduction: Candidaemia in critically-ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients is associated with high crude mortality. Determinants of mortality – particularly those amenable to potential modification – are incompletely defined. Methods: A nationwide prospective clinical and microbiological cohort study of all episodes of ICU-acquired candidaemia occurring in non-neutropenic adults was undertaken in Australian ICUs between 2001 and 2004. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine independently significant variables associated with mortality. Results: 183 episodes of ICU-acquired candidaemia occurred in 183 patients during the study period. Of the 179 with microbiological data, Candida albicans accounted for 111 (62%) episodes and Candida glabrata, 32 (18%). Outcome data were available for 173: crude hospital mortality at 30 days was 56%. Host factors (older age, ICU admission diagnosis, mechanical ventilation and ICU admission diagnosis) and failure to receive systemic antifungal therapy were significantly associated with mortality on multivariate analysis. Among the subset who received initial fluconazole therapy (n = 93), the crude mortality was 52%. Host factors (increasing age and haemodialysis receipt), but not organism- (Candida species, fluconazole MIC), pharmacokinetic- (fluconazole dose, time to initiation), or pharmacodynamic-related parameters (fluconazole dose:MIC ratio) were associated with mortality. Process of care measures advocated in recent guidelines were implemented inconsistently: follow-up blood cultures were obtained in 68% of patients, central venous catheters removed within five days in 80% and ophthalmological examination performed in 36%. Conclusions: Crude mortality remains high in Australian ICU patients with candidaemia and is overwhelmingly related to host factors but not treatment variables (the time to initiation of antifungals or fluconazole pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors). The role and timing of early antifungal intervention in critically-ill ICU patients requires further investigation.
Keywords: Australian Candidaemia Study; Humans; Candida; Fungemia; Candidiasis; Neutropenia; Incidence; Risk Factors; Cohort Studies; Species Specificity; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Middle Aged; Australia; Female; Male
Rights: © 2009 Marriott et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
RMID: 0020092335
DOI: 10.1186/cc7964
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Appears in Collections:Molecular and Biomedical Science publications

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