Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/100658
Citations
Scopus Web of Science® Altmetric
?
?
Type: Journal article
Title: Global alteration of ocean ecosystem functioning due to increasing human CO₂ emissions
Other Titles: Global alteration of ocean ecosystem functioning due to increasing human CO(2) emissions
Author: Nagelkerken, I.
Connell, S.
Citation: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2015; 112(43):13272-13277
Publisher: National Academy of Sciences
Issue Date: 2015
ISSN: 0027-8424
1091-6490
Statement of
Responsibility: 
Ivan Nagelkerken and Sean D. Connell
Abstract: Rising anthropogenic CO₂ emissions are anticipated to drive change to ocean ecosystems, but a conceptualization of biological change derived from quantitative analyses is lacking. Derived from multiple ecosystems and latitudes, our metaanalysis of 632 published experiments quantified the direction and magnitude of ecological change resulting from ocean acidification and warming to conceptualize broadly based change. Primary production by temperate noncalcifying plankton increases with elevated temperature and CO₂, whereas tropical plankton decreases productivity because of acidification. Temperature increases consumption by and metabolic rates of herbivores, but this response does not translate into greater secondary production, which instead decreases with acidification in calcifying and noncalcifying species. This effect creates a mismatch with carnivores whose metabolic and foraging costs increase with temperature. Species diversity and abundances of tropical as well as temperate species decline with acidification, with shifts favoring novel community compositions dominated by noncalcifiers and microorganisms. Both warming and acidification instigate reduced calcification in tropical and temperate reef-building species. Acidification leads to a decline in dimethylsulfide production by ocean plankton, which as a climate gas, contributes to cloud formation and maintenance of the Earth's heat budget. Analysis of responses in short- and long-term experiments and of studies at natural CO₂ vents reveals little evidence of acclimation to acidification or temperature changes, except for microbes. This conceptualization of change across whole communities and their trophic linkages forecast a reduction in diversity and abundances of various key species that underpin current functioning of marine ecosystems.
Keywords: ocean acidification; climate change; metaanalysis; diversity; acclimation
Rights: © The Author(s)
RMID: 0030037112
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1510856112
Grant ID: http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/FT120100183
http://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/FT0991953
Appears in Collections:Earth and Environmental Sciences publications

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
hdl_100658.pdfPublished version1.23 MBAdobe PDFView/Open


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.