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|Title:||Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium differentiates between biofilm and planktonic phenotypes|
|Citation:||Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2015; 81(8):2660-2666|
|Publisher:||American Society for Microbiology|
|Hui San Wong, Garth L. Maker, Robert D. Trengove, Ryan M. O, Handleya|
|Abstract:||The aim of this study was to utilize gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to compare and identify patterns of biochemical change between Salmonella cells grown in planktonic and biofilm phases and Salmonella biofilms of different ages. Our results showed a clear separation between planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The majority of metabolites contributing to variance between planktonic and biofilm supernatants were identified as amino acids, including alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, and ornithine. Metabolites contributing to variance in intracellular profiles were identified as succinic acid, putrescine, pyroglutamic acid, and N-acetylglutamic acid. Principal-component analysis revealed no significant differences between the various ages of intracellular profiles, which would otherwise allow differentiation of biofilm cells on the basis of age. A shifting pattern across the score plot was illustrated when analyzing extracellular metabolites sampled from different days of biofilm growth, and amino acids were again identified as the metabolites contributing most to variance. An understanding of biofilm-specific metabolic responses to perturbations, especially antibiotics, can lead to the identification of novel drug targets and potential therapies for combating biofilm-associated diseases. We concluded that under the conditions of this study, GC-MS can be successfully applied as a high-throughput technique for “bottom-up” metabolomic biofilm research.|
|Keywords:||Plankton; Biofilms; Salmonella typhimurium; Phenotype; Time Factors; Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry; Metabolome|
|Rights:||Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved|
|Appears in Collections:||Animal and Veterinary Sciences publications|
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