Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Scopus Web of Science® Altmetric
Type: Journal article
Title: Inter-seasonal influenza is characterized by extended virus transmission and persistence
Author: Ross, Z.
Komadina, N.
Deng, Y.
Spirason, N.
Kelly, H.
Sullivan, S.
Barr, I.
Holmes, E.
Citation: PLoS Pathogens, 2015; 11(6):e1004991-1-e1004991-16
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Issue Date: 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Statement of
Zoe Patterson Ross, Naomi Komadina, Yi-Mo Deng, Natalie Spirason, Heath A. Kelly, Sheena G. Sullivan, Ian G. Barr, Edward C. Holmes
Abstract: The factors that determine the characteristic seasonality of influenza remain enigmatic. Current models predict that occurrences of influenza outside the normal surveillance season within a temperate region largely reflect the importation of viruses from the alternate hemisphere or from equatorial regions in Asia. To help reveal the drivers of seasonality we investigated the origins and evolution of influenza viruses sampled during inter-seasonal periods in Australia. To this end we conducted an expansive phylogenetic analysis of 9912, 3804, and 3941 hemagglutinnin (HA) sequences from influenza A/H1N1pdm, A/H3N2, and B, respectively, collected globally during the period 2009-2014. Of the 1475 viruses sampled from Australia, 396 (26.8% of Australian, or 2.2% of global set) were sampled outside the monitored temperate influenza surveillance season (1 May – 31 October). Notably, rather than simply reflecting short-lived importations of virus from global localities with higher influenza prevalence, we documented a variety of more complex inter-seasonal transmission patterns including “stragglers” from the preceding season and “heralds” of the forthcoming season, and which included viruses sampled from clearly temperate regions within Australia. We also provide evidence for the persistence of influenza B virus between epidemic seasons, in which transmission of a viral lineage begins in one season and continues throughout the inter-seasonal period into the following season. Strikingly, a disproportionately high number of inter-seasonal influenza transmission events occurred in tropical and subtropical regions of Australia, providing further evidence that climate plays an important role in shaping patterns of influenza seasonality.
Keywords: Humans
Influenza B virus
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Disease Outbreaks
Influenza, Human
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Rights: © 2015 Patterson Ross et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004991
Grant ID:
Appears in Collections:Aurora harvest 3
Medicine publications

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
hdl_103893.pdfPublished version3.75 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.